Tuesday, January 17, 2023

A Veterinary Equinox-Fighting Burnout in a New World


A Veterinary Equinox

Fighting Burnout in a New World

Is It Today?

What is an Equinox?

An Equinox is one of the two times of the year when the amount of daylight and nighttime hours are just about of equal length. The two Equinoxes occur around March 20–21 and September 22–23, marking the onset of both spring and autumn.

To avoid burnout, new graduates as well as senior veterinarians must strive, each day, to reach the stability of the Veterinary Equinox.  This is not easy!! The journey encapsulates finding daylight within your professional and social life while struggling with the darkness of society in today's world! 

We cannot remove the darkness of anxious clients; unjustifiable complaints; economic instability; and negative social media reviews.  

We can balance or lighten this darkness, we experience within our profession, with a journal encapsulating the wonders of being a doctor of veterinary medicine or a veterinary nurse.  A journal is important for a young veterinarian or veterinary nurse for multiple reasons.  It can help those struggling with the "Imposter" Syndrome" and it, also, reinforces the positive impact of their patient interventions.

When our light is not overshadowed by the dark, it is quite easy to realize how we have been blessed as caretakers of the Animal Kingdom. The doctor or nurse must ask each day...."Is it today!"  

If the balance of the Veterinary Equinox is not in your life, action must be taken immediately.

No one wants to speak about suicide.  It is the hidden word that makes us look upon ourselves as being different. The concept of suicide is not spoken about as it smothers us in deep darkness.

Similarly, addictions are denied.  We excuse our extra drinking and drug habits as normal in a world that rationalizes and allows abnormal behavior to be considered the norm!  Many times it is supported by our peers who abuse alcohol and drugs to hide the darkness in their lives.

There has been a plethora of articles, recently, in the Internet and in professional journals about burnout. Many are similar and contain the same information that has been written and rewritten.  Make sure you do not use these articles as a recipe book for solving all problems.  It just will not work.  The stages of burnout can initially be occult and in the beginning unrecognizable.

I have witnessed the loss of a friend and colleague from suicide.  We spoke often and there were no red flags of distress.  She lived on the west coast 1000's of miles away and we loved to chat and share experiences about our roles as caretakers of the Animal Kingdom.  I ask myself over and over again how did it go wrong?  How could this young vibrant beacon of veterinary education become so desperate to give up her life?  That I will never know!  Since her loss, she lives inside of me.  

As a disciple of hers, I have come to believe we all can make a difference in stopping others who seek suicide as an answer to their hidden suffering.  

This can be as simple as reading social media commentary from your special friend and noting if the commentary has become dark. If this darkness is evident, let your friend know about the vehicles of help that have been constructed by the AVMA and ancillary help groups recommended by the AVMA.

The connections between burnout; addiction; and suicide contemplation are complex.  Only a trained healthcare professional can separate and integrate these problems as they exist in their own life.  In many all three problems can co-exist.   

Finding a mentor or friend to help with professional work problems is not a substitute for finding a professional who is an expert in treating depression and other conditions that prevent the individual from being the advocate of the Animal Kingdom that once meant very much to them during their academic years.

The AVMA has important resources that are readily available.

Preventing Suicide: A new guide free to our profession

Published on October 14, 2022

Concerned professional woman reaching her hand out to support a peer

A newly published resource guide developed by the AVMA and partner organizations provides strategies and practical actions that veterinary professionals can take to help prevent suicide.

The Suicide Prevention Resource Guide for Veterinary Settings outlines societal, community, relationship, and individual approaches, and can steer veterinary professionals and groups in developing a comprehensive suicide prevention plan. 

The guide provides information about suicide risk and protective factors, warning signs, and what organizations and individuals can do to help prevent suicide. It reflects learnings from suicide research and the implementation of evidence-based suicide prevention and response strategies in a variety of academic and workplace settings.

The resource guide was developed by the AVMA, the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges, and the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, in collaboration with the National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America, Veterinary Hospital Managers Association, and Veterinary Medical Association Executives.

Suicide is preventable

Despite its complexity, suicide can be prevented. It’s not an inevitable outcome of someone experiencing pain or crisis in their life, and we can take actions to help protect ourselves and others who might be at risk.

The new resource guide joins AVMA’s growing library of wellbeing and suicide prevention resources that are available to everyone in the veterinary profession. Found at avma.org/Wellbeing, these include suicide response guides for veterinary workplaces and colleges, and free suicide prevention training for all veterinary professionals. 

The digital CE courses on AVMA Axon also include numerous wellbeing webinars, including several focused specifically on suicide prevention. Among these are a new, two-part series addressing the latest research and perspectives on preventing suicide, and ways our profession can chart a path forward by working together:

Suicide prevention 1: How we communicate matters

Suicide prevention 2: Lives built on hope

 The Veterinary Equinox can be reached and the excitement of the Animal Kingdom can again be a daily part of our lives.

The question to ask each and every sunrise is described in just three words:   Is it today?

Monday, November 7, 2022

GVEC: Making a Difference-The Global Veterinary Ethics Congress


Notes from the: 

Global Veterinary Ethics Congress

The GVEC: Making a Difference!

"Decisions regarding animal care, use, and welfare shall be made by balancing scientific knowledge and professional judgment with consideration of ethical and societal values.   AVMA

The AVMA, as a medical authority for the health and welfare of animals, offers the following eight integrated principles for developing and evaluating animal welfare policies, resolutions, and actions.

  • The responsible use of animals for human purposes, such as companionship, food, fiber, recreation, work, education, exhibition, and research conducted for the benefit of both humans and animals, is consistent with the Veterinarian's Oath.
  • Decisions regarding animal care, use, and welfare shall be made by balancing scientific knowledge and professional judgment with consideration of ethical and societal values.
  • Animals must be provided water, food, proper handling, health care, and an environment appropriate to their care and use, with thoughtful consideration for their species-typical biology and behavior.
  • Animals should be cared for in ways that minimize fear, pain, stress, and suffering.
  • Procedures related to animal housing, management, care, and use should be continuously evaluated, and when indicated, refined or replaced.
  • Conservation and management of animal populations should be humane, socially responsible, and scientifically prudent.
  • Animals shall be treated with respect and dignity throughout their lives and, when necessary, provided a humane death.
  • The veterinary profession shall continually strive to improve animal health and welfare through scientific research, education, collaboration, advocacy, and the development of legislation and regulations.

Working Together we Can Trace the Footprints to Help the Animal Kingdom! The journey is long and hard but the results can change the world.

Our Journey Continues:

Pandemic Notes from the GVEC............

Is the End of the Global Pandemic in Sight?

Here is What WHO has to say:

Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove, WHO’s technical lead on COVID-19, highlighted that the virus is still “ intensely circulating” around the world and that the agency believes that case numbers being reported are an underestimate.

“We expect that there are going to be future waves of infection, potentially at different time points throughout the world caused by different subvariants of Omicron or even different variants of concern”, she said, reiterating her previous warning that the more the virus circulates, the more opportunities it has to mutate.

However, she said, these future waves do not need to translate into “waves or death” because there are now effective tools such as vaccines and antivirals specifically for COVID-19.

How has the world changed?  We have become more impatient; more self-concerned; more anxious; more angry; and have withdrawn from the active concern for others.

We forget that our health service professionals are still in fox holes of hospital admissions and the care of COVID patients.

Everyone comments that the variants are not that bad.  It is just a bad cold.  That is not completely true as death rates are reported and hospital admissions climb in many states.

How do you explain the importance of Covid Vaccine and its variants?  It cannot be explained because those with closed minds will NEVER become immunized.

A New Health Issue-HRSV-Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus is affecting Children

This fall our country has had a high incidence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus [RSV] being reported. This virus has been around for years but it has made a major return in 2022.

From the Mayo Clinic Staff:

Causes of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus:

Respiratory Syncytial Virus enters the body through the eyes, nose or mouth. It spreads easily through the air on infected respiratory droplets. You or your child can become infected if someone with RSV coughs or sneezes near you. The virus also passes to others through direct contact, such as shaking hands.

The virus can live for hours on hard objects such as countertops, crib rails and toys. Touch your mouth, nose or eyes after touching a contaminated object and you're likely to pick up the virus.

An infected person is most contagious during the first week or so after infection. But in infants and those with weakened immunity, the virus may continue to spread even after symptoms go away, for up to four weeks.

Risk factors

By age 2, most children will have been infected with respiratory syncytial virus, but they can get infected by RSV more than once. Children who attend child care centers or who have siblings who attend school are at a higher risk of exposure and reinfection. RSV season — when outbreaks tend to occur — is the fall to the end of spring.

People at increased risk of severe or sometimes life-threatening RSV infections include:

  • Infants, especially premature infants or babies who are 6 months or younger
  • Children who have heart disease that's present from birth (congenital heart disease) or chronic lung disease
  • Children or adults with weakened immune systems from diseases such as cancer or treatment such as chemotherapy
  • Children who have neuromuscular disorders, such as muscular dystrophy
  • Adults with heart disease or lung disease
  • Older adults, especially those age 65 and older


Complications of respiratory syncytial virus include:

  • Hospitalization. A severe RSV infection may require a hospital stay so that doctors can monitor and treat breathing problems and give intravenous (IV) fluids.
  • Pneumonia. RSV is the most common cause of inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia) or the lungs' airways (bronchiolitis) in infants. These complications can occur when the virus spreads to the lower respiratory tract. Lung inflammation can be quite serious in infants, young children, older adults, immunocompromised individuals, or people with chronic heart or lung disease.
  • Middle ear infection. If germs enter the space behind the eardrum, you can get a middle ear infection (otitis media). This happens most frequently in babies and young children.
  • Asthma. There may be a link between severe RSV in children and the chance of developing asthma later in life.
  • Repeated infections. Once you've had RSV, you could get infected again. It's even possible for it to happen during the same RSV season. However, symptoms usually aren't as severe — typically it's in the form of a common cold. But they can be serious in older adults or in people with chronic heart or lung disease.

Prevention-What we can do!

No vaccine exists for respiratory syncytial virus. But these lifestyle habits can help prevent the spread of this infection:

  • Wash your hands frequently. Teach your children the importance of hand-washing.
  • Avoid exposure. Cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze. Limit your baby's contact with people who have fevers or colds.
  • Keep things clean. Make sure kitchen and bathroom countertops, doorknobs, and handles are clean. Discard used tissues right away.
  • Don't share drinking glasses with others. Use your own glass or disposable cups when you or someone else is sick. Label each person's cup.
  • Don't smoke. Babies who are exposed to tobacco smoke have a higher risk of getting RSV and potentially more-severe symptoms. If you do smoke, never do so inside the house or car.
  • Wash toys regularly. Do this especially when your child or a playmate is sick.

Protective medication

The medication palivizumab (Synagis), given in the form of a shot (injection), can help protect certain infants and children 2 years old and younger who are at high risk of serious complications from RSV. High-risk children in this age group include those who:

  • Were born prematurely
  • Have chronic lung disease
  • Have certain heart defects
  • Have a weakened immune system

The first injection is given at the start of the RSV season, with monthly injections given during the season. This medication only helps prevent RSV infection. It does not help treat it once symptoms develop.

Talk with your child's doctor to find out if your child would benefit from this medication and to learn more about it. This medication is not recommended for healthy children or for adults.

Scientists continue working to develop a vaccine to protect against RSV.

The Flu season, COVID Variants, and Human RSV are with us!

We must be vigilant as we move indoors for winter activities and celebrations.
We must follow WHO and CDC recommendations.  We must continue to educate ourselves and read about simple recommendations that can make a difference in our lives.
What Else Can We Do?
But such is the irresistible nature of truth. that all it asks, and all it wants, is the liberty of appearing. Thomas Pain
Working Together----
Partnerships of Concern----
Change can happen!
The GVEC is researching ways to create partnerships to bring excellent animal health care to all Members of the Animal Kingdom.
The Pets of the indigent in need of medical and/or surgical assistance----- without access to emergency and specialty doctors because of financial stress-----is an enormous problem. 

Emotional support companions; those who help PTSD patients; and other therapy dogs........ ALL need assistance in times of need. There may not be income available to buffer the the cost of specialty medicine and surgery. The GVEC is searching for a national vehicle of assistance for these important members of the Animal Kingdom.

Shelter Medicine: 
Addressing and fulfilling the care of abandoned pets; overcrowded shelters; and lack of food for all members of the Animal Kingdom is an ongoing problem. The GVEC supports Shelter Medicine and the veterinarians; nurse technicians; and para-veterinary staff working hard to bring new homes to abandoned members of the Animal Kingdom.

The GVEC will work to partner with One Health to determine ways that veterinarians can contribute to zoonosis identification; control; and public awareness. The exciting coupling and integration of animals; people; and the environment is just beginning to be explored.  The GVEC seeks partnerships with One Health today and tomorrow.  

The GVEC supports the continued development of free range habitats that mimic natural habitats! New habitats and range environments for zoo species is part of our moral commitment to the Animal Kingdom. The GVEC in partnership with the private sector seeks otherpartners to work for species preservation.

The GVEC supports the creation of Veterinary Nurse Practitioner Education Programs to fill the deficiency in veterinarians throughout the United States.

The GVEC will help develop Mentorship Programs to assist new doctors in their journey from academia into clinical and surgical practices.  This mentorship is critical to allow new graduates a forum to verbalize their concerns in their new professional lives.

Telemedicine, APPS, and Hybrid Veterinary Hospitals will be addressed as we move into a new era of veterinary  client- doctor communication.

The GVEC will work with the private sector and the veterinary schools to address burnout; alcoholism; and drug addiction along with suicide prevention.  Proactive systems of help will be developed rather than retroactive capture once the doctor is in serious condition.

This is just the beginning of the construction of a GVEC national highway system of change to brighten the future of new and senior veterinarians; their nurse technicians; para-veterinary personnel; and all members of the Animal Kingdom!
Comments and Partner Communications can be sent to:
Acting Chair-Global Veterinary Ethics Congress [GVEC] 

Friday, September 9, 2022

Pet Cat to Human Spillback-SARS-CoV-2


Pet Cat to Human Spillback

Dr. Williams Hardy

Dr. Evelyn Zuckerman

Dr. Hardy has cautioned, over the past 2 years, of possible SARS-CoV-2 spillbacks from pet cats.  There have been numerous worldwide reports of infected cat owners infecting their cats, in fact there were 126 outbreaks in cats by May of 2021, more than a year ago.  Now such a spillback from an infected pet cat has occurred, in Thailand, to a 32-year-old healthy female veterinarian. The cat was presented to the veterinary hospital of the Prince of Songkla University by a 32- and 64-year-old son and father from Bangkok.  The cat had a history of fever, clear nasal discharge, and a productive cough for the past 2 days. The female veterinarian obtained nasal and rectal swabs while 2 other veterinarians restrained the cat.




As Expected, It has Happened!

A Spillback from a Domestic Pet Cat to a Veterinarian!©

   Evelyn E. Zuckerman, Editor                           Summer  2022                              Vol. 21  Number 3


The Summer 2022 NVL Newsletter will stress, as we have feared, a SARS-CoV-2 spillback from a pet cat to a person, a veterinarian!  We will discuss animal reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2 and the dangers these present and the unfulfilled One Health Approach to responding to pandemics. This pandemic is still not over and we may have to live with it for the foreseeable future.




CDC definition:  Spillover is a single event during which a pathogen from one species moves into another species; such movement can result in an outbreak.


Wikipedia definition: Spillover is the zoonotic transmission of a pathogen from a vertebrate animal to a human.  It is a common event, in fact more than two-thirds of human viruses are zoonotic. Spillovers can result in different chains of infections in people:


Chains of Infection:

1. Some spillover events are dead-ends where there is no further human to human transmission. Examples are Rabies, Anthrax, or Histoplasmosis.


2. In other spillover events, the zoonotic pathogens are able to be transmitted by humans to produce secondary cases and are even able to establish limited chains of transmission in people. Examples are the Ebola and Marburg filoviruses, the MERS and SARS coronaviruses and some avian flu viruses.


3. Finally, a few spillover events can result in the serious final adaptation of the microbe to humans, who become a new stable exclusive reservoir, as occurred with HIV resulting in the AIDS epidemic. Most of the pathogens which are presently exclusive in humans were probably transmitted by animals sometime in the past.


4. The present SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 pandemic seems to be evolving, with the generation of numerous mutants, into an unstable human-adapted pathogen. This is due to various spillovers (reverse zoonoses) into different animal species and now spillbacks occurring from these species into humans.


‘Spillover’ is commonly used to describe pathogen transmission from non-human animals to humans, ‘spillback’ is used to describe pathogen transmission from humans to animals. However, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to increased concern over transmission of pathogens from humans to animals and the term (“spillback”) is often used.  Since we are considering this current pandemic, we choose to use the term “spillback” to mean an animal transmission of their human derived SARS-CoV-2 virus from an infected animal species back into humans.  Spillback is of great concern because newly infected animal species may act as an additional reservoir of the virus or, even worse, may act to generate mutant strains, variants, which will be more transmissible and more deadly. The following examples highlights this phenomenon.


           SARS-CoV-2 Animal Spillbacks                               

Susceptibility:  Many animal species are susceptible to infection of SARS-CoV-2 from people (covered in our Newsletter “Animals and the COVID-19 Pandemic” Winter 2022, Vol. 21, No.1) and some can transmit the virus directly among their species. Five animals, mink, mouse, deer, hamster, and now pet cats are able to re-transmit the virus back to people (spillback)

Animal Spillbacks

Mink:  Millions of minks have been infected from humans with SARS-CoV-2 and minks, in many worldwide mink farms, have been eliminated due to the spillback to humans.5


Hamster: Occurrences of spillbacks from pet hamsters to their owners have been reported.6 Pets are a major concern as they live closely with people.  There have been no reports of spillbacks from pet dogs but another pet, cats, can be infected from their owners and can transmit the virus to other cats by the aerosol route.  Now there is the first report of spillback from a pet cat to a veterinarian.10



The Omicron SARS-CoV-2 mutant was first found in South Africa on November 24, 2021. It spread rapidly throughout the world and is now dominant. It is much more transmissible than the original Wuhan isolate.  There is evidence that an earlier mutation, transferred from humans to mice sometime during 2020, mutated quietly as it spread among mice for over a year, before spillback to humans late in 2021 occurred.7  The authors did an elegant genetic study of the generation of numerous mutations in the S-protein of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants. The mutations occur in a pattern unique for each species of infected animal. They found the Omicron variants in people matched the pattern specifically from mice.15


Deer:  Many white-tailed deer, in the USA and Canada, have high prevalences of SARS-CoV-2 infections with several variants. A group found divergent lineage of SARS-CoV-2 in the deer with mutation signatures of host adaptation under neutral selection. There is an epidemiological link to a human case in the area which indicates spillback, deer-to-human transmission.8,9 This is new evidence that mutants are being generated in deer which might make some more virulent.

Pet Cat to Human Spillback:

Dr. Hardy has cautioned, over the past 2 years, of possible SARS-CoV-2 spillbacks from pet cats.  There have been numerous worldwide reports of infected cat owners infecting their cats, in fact there were 126 outbreaks in cats by May of 2021, more than a year ago.  Now such a spillback from an infected pet cat has occurred, in Thailand, to a 32-year-old healthy female veterinarian. The cat was presented to the veterinary hospital of the Prince of Songkla University by a 32- and 64-year-old son and father from Bangkok.  The cat had a history of fever, clear nasal discharge, and a productive cough for the past 2 days. The female veterinarian obtained nasal and rectal swabs while 2 other veterinarians restrained the cat.


 During the 10-minute   procedure, the cat sneezed in the face of the veterinarian while she was obtaining the nasal swab. She and the other veterinarians were wearing disposable gloves and N95 masks but no face shields or eye goggle protection.  


Three days later the female veterinarian became symptomatic, but did not seek medical attention, until 5 days later, when the RT-PCR results from the cat were positive.  During this time period, July-September, 2021, the COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 was transitioning from the Alpha variant to the Delta variant.  The veterinarian then tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. The examining veterinarian did not have any close contacts that were diagnosed with COVID-19 so the cat was the only source of the virus. 


The SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequences were identical to the 2 cat owners, their cat and the infected examining veterinarian. Such spillbacks may be uncommon from cats due to the relatively short duration (median 5 days) that cats shed viable virus.   The evidence seems clear that SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted from one of the infected owners to the cat, and then from the cat to the veterinarian.  Another important finding is the likelihood that the infection occurred through the eye conjunctiva rather than as an aerosol through the respiratory tract.


This report suggests that eye protection, as part of the standard personal protection, is advisable for pet owners, caregivers and veterinary hospital personnel, during close interactions with cats suspected to be, or known to be infected.


Until recently there has not been a single case of SARS-CoV-2 spillback to people, nor the evidence of spread and adaptive circulation of the virus among pet cats. However, there is a need to examine SARS-CoV-2 occurrence in feral or stray cats.  Such studies have not yet been done.


SARS-CoV-2 Infected FeLV Infected Pet Cat:


Another recent study reported an FeLV-infected pet cat that was coinfected with a Gamma SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern P.1.   This finding is disturbing in that it shows the potential of immunocompromised FeLV-positive cats to


become a reservoir for the generation of new SARS-CoV-2 variants.  Similar concerns occur when immunosuppressed people are infected with SARS-CoV-2 as they are also usually infected longer, due to their immunosuppression. This can allow for the generation of more variants than do non-immunosuppressed people who can clear their infections more quickly. A very interesting study, lead by Sue VandeWoude, who previously did research into feline leukemia virus, found that SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals can lead to rapid adaption of the virus to their new animal hosts resulting in rapid viral evolution with generation of variants. This is concerning in regard to possible spillback, especially if it occurs in species such as cats and dogs, who live in close frequent contact with people.  In this regard, there is now evidence that SARS-CoV-2 reverse zoonosis can occur from infected owners to their pet cats and dogs through food sharing (vomites), the sharing of leftover human food with pets.17    


The One Health Approach:

CDC’s One Health Office leads the agency’s One Health efforts in the United States and abroad. “One Health is a collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach—working at the local, regional, national, and global levels—with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes recognizing the interconnection between people, animals, plants, and their shared environment.” The One Health Approach, as seen by many, has only been descriptive so far.  A recent publication describes the One Health disparities of COVID-19 disease transmission: exposure, susceptibility, and disease expression. These are caused by biological and social factors, such as diabetes and obesity, and by variation in access to healthcare.


Present Pandemic Statistics20,23

As of 8-10-2022

Worldwide WHO:

Worldwide SARS-CoV-2 Infections: 584,065,952

Worldwide deaths from COVID-19:      6,418,958



USA SARS-CoV-2 Infections:             92,296,142

USA Deaths  (most in the world)         1,030,010

Average new daily infections (cases)        107,077 

Average new daily deaths                                 395


A recent analysis by the Kaiser Family Foundation estimated that 60% of all adult COVID-19 deaths in the United States since June 2021, could have been prevented 234,000 by vaccination with just the primary series alone (no boosters). On a per capita basis in descending order: Mississippi, Arizona, Oklahoma, Alabama, West Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, New Jersey, and Michigan experienced the most COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 residents while Hawaii, Vermont, and Puerto Rico reported the lowest number per capita.


Commentary by Dr. William D. Hardy, Jr.:  On a happier note, June 1, 2022 was The National Veterinary Laboratory’s 50th anniversary!  Yes, 50 years, one-half century ago, we started the lab in my garage in New Jersey. To our knowledge, we are the oldest private veterinary diagnostic laboratory in the United States.  We are a specialty lab testing for only “the 3 common cat pathogens” FeLV, Bartonella and FIV.  We thank the 5,169 veterinary hospitals that have used our services.


A special thank you to Dr. William Hardy and Dr.

Evelyn Zuckerman for this important update: 

Pet Cat to Human Spillback



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8.  Palmer MV, et al., Susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to SARS-CoV-2. J Virol 95:e00083-21. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00083-21.

9. Pickering B., et al., Highly divergent white-tailed deer SARS-CoV-2 with potential deer-to-human transmission. bioRxiv 2022.02.22.481551; preprint, not peer reviewed.

10. Sila, T., et al, Suspected Cat-to-Human Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Thailand, July–September 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 28, No. 7, July 2022. 

11. Drozdz, M, et al., Current State of Knowledge about Role of Pets in Zoonotic Transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Viruses, 13, 1149, 2021, https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061149.

12. Bosco-Lauth AM, et al., Experimental infection of domestic dogs and cats with SARS-CoV-2: pathogenesis, transmission, and response to re-exposure in cats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 117:26382–8, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2013102117.

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15. Doliff, R., et al., Cats and SARS-CoV-2: A Scoping Review. Animals 12, 1413, 2022,


16. Carneiro, RL, et al., First description of a multisystemic and lethal SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern P.1 (Gamma) infection in a FeLV-positive cat. Virology Journal. 19.93, 2022,


17. Solon, A-O, et al., SARS-CoV-2 transmission from infected owner to household dogs and cats is associated with food sharing. Intern J. Infect Dis, 122, 295-299, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2022.05.049.

18. Solis, A and Nunn, CL., One health disparities and COVID-19, Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, 9, 70-77, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoab003.

19.  CDC One Health https://www.cdc.gov/onehealth/

20. https://covid19.who.int/

21. http://CDC.gov

22. https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/

23. Wikipedia:  www.wikipedia.org/wiki/coronavirus

24. Kaiser Family Foundation, https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/global-covid-19-tracker/.









SARS-CoV-2 & COVID-19 references can be obtained at:   www.nlm.nih.gov and https://scholar.google.com/

National Veterinary Laboratory, Inc., 2022©

A Veterinary Equinox-Fighting Burnout in a New World

  A Veterinary Equinox Fighting Burnout in a New World Is It Today? What is an E quinox ? An E quinox  is one of the two times of the year w...